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All time important and famous judgments of Supreme Court

1. Kesavananda Bharati vs. State of Kerala,1973

issue :-

It is one of the most well-known cases in Indian legal history. In 1970, it was filed. The leader of Edneer Mutt was Keshvananda Bharati. It's a religious organisation based in Kasaragod, Kerala. Bharati owned a number of plots of land in his name. The Land Reforms Amendment Act, 1969, was introduced by Kerala's state government at the time.

Decision :-

By a 7:6 ratio, the 13-judge Constitutional bench of the apex court in the country issued a ground-breaking decision in this case. It established the Constitution's basic structure theory and gave it stability.

The Supreme Court also declared that the Parliament has the ability to modify the Constitution, including Fundamental Rights, but that the “basic structure of the Constitution shall not be abrogated even by a constitutional amendment.”

Bharati's case was partially lost, yet it became a saviour of Indian democracy and protected the Constitution's essence from being lost.

2. Indra Sawhney  vs. Union of India

issue :-

The case brought to light a significant problem. Social and educational backwardness were recognised in the Indian Constitution, but economic backwardness was not. Indira Sawhney launched a lawsuit against the Narasimha Rao government in 1993. The case was brought against the government's decision to grant only 10% quota for economically backward upper castes in various government jobs.

Decision :-

Separate reservations for OBCs in central government positions were also affirmed by the highest court, but only for the creamy layer. Reservations in appointments under Article 16 (4) of the Constitution would not apply to promotions, according to the ruling. It was not implemented in many states.

3. A.K Gopalan vs. State of Madras, 1950:

issue :-

AK Gopalan was a leader of the Communist Party. In 1950, he was detained in the Madras Jail under the Preventive Detention Law. He challenged his detention using the writ of Habeas Corpus and Article 32 of the Constitution. He claimed that the Act's Sections 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 violate the Indian Constitution's Articles 13, 19, and 21. According to his argument, the stated Act is in violation of the key thing provisions contained in the Indian Constitution.

The question of the Indian Constitution's "method characterised by resolution" condition was also addressed by the lawyer.

Decision :-

The Indian Supreme Court claimed that Article 22 of the Indian Constitution was a separate code. According to the report, Gopalan was detained by the legal system.

The court further noted that if an individual's freedom is taken away by the state in accordance with the legal system, it cannot be said that the state is neglecting the provisions of Articles 14, 19, and 21 of the Constitution.

In this instance, the Supreme Court took a limited view of Article 21. The zenith court declared segment 14 void since it was found to be unlawful and in violation of key rights while applying the regulation of severity.

4. maneka Gandhi v. union of India

issue :-

The passport of Maneka Gandhi, late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's daughter-in-law, was seized by the ruling Janta Party government in 1977. She challenged the order before the Supreme Court with a petition.

Decision :-

Although the court did not overturn the government's injunction in this case, the decision had far-reaching implications. The seven-judge panel declared that citizens have the right to personal liberty (Article 21 of the Constitution), setting a precedent for fundamental rights cases.

During the Emergency, the Supreme Court was strongly chastised for failing to protect civil freedoms and constitutional ideals.

5. Shayara Bano vs Union of India & Others in 2017

issue :-

After 15 years of marriage, Shayara Bano was divorced by Rizwan Ahmad in 2016 using the instantaneous triple talaq process, also known as talaq -e bidat. A Writ Petition was filed in the Supreme Court to declare talaq-e-biddat, polygamy, and nikah-halala as unconstitutional in the Muslim community.

Bano also alleged that such actions were in violation of Indian Constitution articles 14, 15, 21, and 25.

Decision :-

Shayara Bano's petition was supported by the Union of India and women's rights organisations such as Bebaak Collective and Bhartiya Muslim Mahila Andolan (BMMA). They agreed that such actions should be considered unconstitutional. After the case was approved, the supreme court created a five-judge constitutional bench. The Supreme Court ruled that triple talaq in any form was unconstitutional. Instant triple talaq was also declared unconstitutional. The Supreme Court of Pakistan issued a formal prohibition on Triple Talaq on August 22, 2017, with the husband facing up to three years in prison.

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