There are five types of constant regions in the heavy chain found in antibodies (immunoglobulin) and, based on the type, they are classed in IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE. They have different distributions and functions within the body.
Five types of antibodies are available that each has a distinct purpose
- IgG is the primary blood-borne antibody and can bind to bacteria as well as toxins, and consequently plays a crucial part in the defense system. IgG is the sole type that can pass through the placenta. IgG that is transferred through the maternal body helps protect the infant.
2. IgM is made up of five components of fundamental shapes that resemble Ys and are transported to the blood. It is first produced upon the invasion of pathogens via B cells IgM plays a crucial function in the initial immune system defense to protect the body.
3. When it comes to the bloodstream, IgA occurs mainly in monomers (the shape of one Y) However, it can also form dimers (a combination of two Ys) in the secretions like nasal discharge, bowel fluid, and saliva, which helps protect against bacterial invasion through the mucous membrane. It is also found in breast milk and helps protect the gastrointestinal tract in newborns from infection by viruses and bacteria.
4. IgD is found on the B cell's surface and is thought to be involved in the development of antibody production and treatment of infections in the respiratory tract.
5. There is a belief that IgE was first linked to immune reactions to parasites. Through adhering to mast cell receptors IgE is thought to play a role in allergies like pollinosis.
Mixing genes from the variable region to create an array of antibodies
The variety in antibodies can be determined using a process known as gene restructuring.
The genes within the variable region of the heavy chain in an antibody can be split into VH genes, DH gene regions, and JH gene regions. The gene within the variable region of the light chain of antibodies is split in the VL gene region as well as the JL region. The gene regions are assembled by selecting a specific type of gene from several fragments of genes.
This way there is a myriad of antibody optimization that are made up of gene fragments from the variable region of the heavy chain and the variable region in the light chain.
- INTRINSIC ADVANTAGE for CHALENGING TARGET
- High hit rate: multiple screening/assay method to select functional leads at earlier stage
- Low hit rate: limited B cell repertoire due to fusion loss
By isolating, confining, and interrogating each individual B cells, single B cell screening maximizes the antibody repertoires that we can access, therefore it is inherently superior in preserving the B cell diversity. The effective concentration in the microsystem allows the detection for antibody secretion from a single cell within minutes. This means using the single B cell screening platform, lead clones can be identified in less than 1 day. This platform can also be coupled with sample sources from recovered patients PBMC or express immunization of fully human transgenic mice, allowing you to obtain fully human antibody in 1 month! In Feb. 2020, our single B cell screening platform has shown to be an indispensable tool for identifying several promising leads against the 2019 NCP within 12 hours
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