The Indian Constitution is the supreme law of the country, adopted on November 26, 1949, and came into effect on January 26, 1950. It is the longest written constitution in the world and is the foundation of the Republic of India.
The Constitution consists of a preamble and 448 articles that are divided into 25 parts, and it also includes 12 schedules. The preamble declares India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, ensuring justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity to all its citizens.
The Constitution provides for a federal system of government, with a separation of powers between the executive, legislative, and judiciary. The executive branch of government is headed by the President of India, who is the constitutional head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and is appointed by the President.
The legislative branch of government is divided into two houses, the Lok Sabha (lower house) and the Rajya Sabha (upper house). Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by the people of India, while members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the state legislative assemblies.
The judiciary in India is independent of the other two branches of government, and the Supreme Court is the highest court of the land. The Constitution provides for fundamental rights to all citizens of India, including the right to equality, freedom of speech and expression, and the right to life and liberty.
The Constitution also provides for Directive Principles of State Policy, which are guidelines for the government to ensure the welfare of the people and social justice. The Constitution can be amended through a two-thirds majority vote in both houses of Parliament or through a special constituent assembly.
Overall, the Indian Constitution is a comprehensive document that lays out the framework of government and rights of citizens. It has played a significant role in India's development and is considered a model for other countries seeking to establish democratic governance.