Kidney dysplasia is a congenital (present at birth) abnormality of the kidneys, in which the normal development of the kidney tissue is disrupted. This results in the formation of irregular or poorly developed structures within the kidney. Kidney dysplasia can cause one or both kidneys to be smaller than normal and function poorly.
There are two main types of kidney dysplasia: simple dysplasia and complex dysplasia. Simple dysplasia is characterized by a minor abnormality in the structure of the kidney, whereas complex dysplasia is characterized by more significant abnormalities and the presence of cysts or other malformations.
Kidney dysplasia can lead to a number of complications, including chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, and infections. In some cases, it may also lead to kidney failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation.
Diagnosis of kidney dysplasia is often made through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment may include medications to manage symptoms, surgery to remove abnormal tissue, or a kidney transplant.
It is important to identify and treat kidney dysplasia early in life to prevent the development of complications and to preserve kidney function. Early diagnosis and appropriate management can help to improve the long-term outlook for people with kidney dysplasia.